The ABC‘s and Their Tricks 一书中的 spelling rules|
The phonograms: b c d f g h j k l m n p qu r s t v w x y z
1) Q is always written with two letters, qu, when we say “kw.” The u is not considered a vowel in this case.
2) C before e, i, or y says “s.” When c by itself has a sound, it always says “s” if followed by e, i, or y (cent, ci ty, cy clone); otherwise its sound is “k” (cat, cy clone, mu sic).
3) G before e, i, or y may say “j.” When g has a sound by itself it can say “j” only if it is followed by e, i, or y. When followed by any other letter, it always says (hard) “g.” “Get,” “girl,” and “give” show that e and i do not always make g say “j.”
4) Gu before e, i, or y says “g.” In order to keep g hard before e, i, or y within a word, a “u” is added after the g, as in guest, guide, guit ar. The u goes with the g and does not act like a vowel in this case. Most words containing gu are from French and Spanish.
The phonograms: a e i o u y
1) The vowels a, e, i, o, and u usually say (short) a, e, i, o, and u, when followed by a consonant before the end of a syllable, as in at, end, in, odd, and up.
2) The vowels a, e, i, o, and u usually say (long) a, e, i, o, and u at the end of a syllable, as in na vy, me, si lent, o pen, and mu sic.
3) “I” can say (long) “e” when it comes before another vowel in a suffix, as in ra di o or mil li on.
4) “Y” says (long) “i” at the end of short words or at the end of a syllable, as in my, try, ty rant; but at the end of a suffix y usually says (long) “e” as in ba by, love ly, and hap py.
5) A, o, and u can sometimes have a third sound, as in want, do, and put.
Silent Final E
1) time: The silent e is there to let the vowel say its name.
2) have: In English we cannot end a word with a “v,” so the silent e follows the “v.”
3) chance, change: The silent e follows the c and g so that they can say “s” and “j.”
4) lit tle: Every syllable in English must contain at least one vowel. The -ble, -cle, -dle, -fle, -gle, -kle, -ple, -sle, -tle, and -zle endings are the only syllables that would not contain a vowel without the silent e.
5) please: The silent e comes after a single s or z at the end of a root which is preceeded by another consonant or vowel team. The silent e shows that the s or z belongs to the root and is not a part of a suffix. Compare “pleas” (more than one plea) to “please,” and “dens” (more than one den) to “dense.”
[ 本帖最后由 fengNwei 于 2006-11-11 19:28 编辑 ]
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